Professor Chris Jackson’s Publications are shown below. Click the title to download. Electronic copies of articles are posted as a professional courtesy to individuals to facilitate sharing of academic work for strictly noncommercial purposes. The copyrights and all associated rights continue to reside with the copyright holders, as noted in each paper.

Filter according to research interest (EAR, EPP, FT50, A*, HMLP, Maverick, rRST):




Classification Authors Date Title Journal Abstract
rRST Walker, B., & Jackson C. In press Examining the Validity of the Revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory Scales. Personality and Individual Differences, 106, 90-94. Several self-report scales are now available to measure Gray and McNaughton's revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (r-RST). To date, no research has evaluated all the studies used by these scales together in one article so researchers can assess their differential utility. This article attempts to address this issue with a summary of the studies used by the r-RST scales. We found that the Jackson 5 includes the most studies attesting to its validity, but recognize this as partly a function of it as the oldest scale. The Jackson 5 and the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory Personality Questionnaire have been used by researchers other than the original authors, which suggests acceptance by the r-RST research community. Our hope is that this article is useful to researchers as a succinct summary of the validity of measures and also a commentary on the studies.

rRST

A*

Collins, M., Jackson, C., Walker, B., O’Connor, P., & Gardiner, E. In press Integrating the Context-Appropriate Balanced Attention Model and Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory: Towards a Domain-General Personality Process Model. Psychological Bulletin. Over the last 40 years or more the personality literature has been dominated by trait models based on the Big Five (B5). Trait-based models describe personality at the between-person level but cannot explain the within-person mental mechanisms responsible for personality. Nor can they adequately account for variations in emotion and behavior experienced by individuals across different situations and over time. An alternative, yet understated, approach to personality architecture can be found in neurobiological theories of personality, most notably reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST). In contrast to static trait-based personality models like the B5, RST provides a more plausible basis for a personality process model, namely, one that explains how emotions and behavior arise from the dynamic interaction between contextual factors and within-person mental mechanisms. In this article, the authors review the evolution of a neurobiologically based personality process model based on RST, the response modulation model and the context-appropriate balanced attention model. They argue that by integrating this complex literature, and by incorporating evidence from personality neuroscience, one can meaningfully explain personality at both the within- and between-person levels. This approach achieves a domain-general architecture based on RST and self-regulation that can be used to align within-person mental mechanisms, neurobiological systems and between-person measurement models.
A* Ciarrochi, J. Parker, P., Sahdra, S., Marshall, S., Jackson, C., Gloster, A., & Heaven, P. 2016 The development of compulsive internet use and mental health: A four year study of adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 5, 272-83. doi: 10.1037/dev0000070. Is Compulsive Internet Use (CIU) an antecedent to poor mental health, a consequence, or both? Study 1 utilized a longitudinal design to track the development of CIU and mental health in Grade 8 (N =1030 males, 1038 females, Mage = 13.7), 9, 10, and 11. Study 2 extended Study 1 by examining the kinds of internet behaviours most strongly associated with CIU within males and females. Structural equation modelling revealed that CIU predicted the development of poor mental health, whereas poor mental health did not predict CIU development. Latent Growth analyses showed that both females and males increased in CIU and mental health problems across the high school years. Females had higher CIU and worse mental health than males, and tended to engage in more social forms of internet use. We discuss future directions for CIU intervention research.
FT50 Walker, B., & Jackson, C. 2016 Moral Emotions and Corporate Psychopathy: A Review. Journal of Business Ethics. While psychopathy research has been growing for decades, a relatively new area of research is corporate psychopathy. Corporate psychopaths are simply psychopaths working in organizational settings. They may be attracted to the financial, power, and status gains available in senior positions and can cause considerable damage within these roles from a manipulative interpersonal style to large-scale fraud. Based upon prior studies, we analyze psychopathy research pertaining to 23 moral emotions classified according to functional quality (positive vs. negative signal) and target (self vs. other). Based upon our review, we suggest that psychopaths are high in moral emotions associated with other-directed negative signals, low in self-directed negative signals, and low in otherdirected positive signals. We found no empirical articles related to self-directed positive signals. This understanding of the specific moral emotion deficits of corporate psychopaths provides greater theoretical understanding and practical implications of knowing which individuals not to promote, though more research is needed on moral emotions that are faked for manipulative reasons.
rRST Jonason, P.K., & Jackson, C.J. 2016 The Dark Triad traits through the lens of Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 273–277. In two studies (N = 504) we looked through the lens of Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory to understand the Dark Triad traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism). In Study 1, the Dark Triad traits were correlated with negative affectivity, reward sensitivity, the fight system, and dysfunctional impulsivity. In Study 2, the Dark Triad traits were associated with a fight response. Sex differences in the Dark Triad traits were present in Study 1 but proved more allusive in Study 2, but were mediated by individual differences in fight systems (Study 2) and reward and punishment sensitivity (Study 1). Narcissism was associated with Behavioral Activation and Inhibition Systems across studies and measures. Results are consistent with the adaptive coordination expected by evolutionary psychologists who study the Dark Triad traits
HMLP Dwi Mustika, M., & Jackson, C. J. 2016 How Nurses Who Are Sensation Seekers Justify Their Unsafe Behaviors. Personality and Individual Differences. Sensation seeking, risk-taking propensity and openness to experience are known predictors of unsafe behaviors. The aim of this study is to determine if individuals with these characteristics justify their unsafe behaviors by attributing them to external factors such as a lack of organizational support. We explore the interaction between sensation seeking and risk-taking propensity, explain how nurses justify their unsafe work practices, and investigate the effect of openness on directing sensation seekers behavior. In this cross-sectional study, 108 nurses completed questionnaires and an objective task measuring risk-taking propensity. Conditional direct effect analysis showed that nurses with sensation-seeking characteristics and high level of risk-taking propensity were likely to perceive external factors as accounting for their unsafe behaviors. Furthermore, sensation seeking re-expressed as openness to experience predicted increased blame externalization. Additionally, nurses with high risk-taking propensity, leading to a focus on rewards and learning experiences, attributed unsafe work practices to external factors.
  Jackson, S., Fung, M. C., Moore, M. A., & Jackson, C. J. 2016 Personality and Workaholism. Personality and Individual Differences This study examined how a range of contemporary models of personality were associated with Workaholism (Feeling driven to work and Enjoyment of work). Approach, avoidance, addictive personality, Agreeableness, Openness, and Conscientiousness were measured using instruments of the Big Five, Eysenck's biosocial model (1967), and two versions of Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory. Data were collected using online questionnaires in two studies. The first comprised 476 fulltime workers from Australia, while the second comprised 105 managers from the US. Results showed that approach pathways were associated with Enjoyment of work and avoidance pathways were generally associated with Feeling driven to work in fulltime workers only. Workaholism was not related to an addictive personality. The study provides a new understanding of how personality is associated with Workaholism. Managerial implications and differences in relations between personality and Workaholism in workers and managers are discussed.
A* Collins, M., & Jackson, C. J. 2015 A process model of self regulation and leadership: How attentional resource capacity and negative emotion influence constructive and destructive leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 26, 386–401. This study proposes a process model of the antecedents of both constructive and destructive leadership. As task difficulty increases, a leader's limited attentional resource capacity may become overwhelmed by the experience of high levels of negative emotions, resulting in self-regulation impairment and destructive leadership. When task difficulty is low, or when negative emotions do not overwhelm attentional resource capacity, then self-regulation is effective, giving rise to constructive leadership. We test our model with 161 leaders in the field and find good support for our model in the prediction of transformational leadership and abusive supervision as specific examples of constructive and destructive leadership.
Maverick
HMLP
Gardiner, E. & Jackson, C. 2015 Personality and learning processes underlying maverickism. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30, .726 - 740. Purpose – Maverickism is the tendency of an individual to be socially competent, creative, goal focussed, risk-taking and disruptive. Previous research with the five-factor model (FFM) shows that individuals high in maverickism exhibit both functional and dysfunctional tendencies. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the descriptive FFM with the process-oriented hybrid model of learning in personality (HMLP), in the prediction of maverickism. Design/methodology/approach – Employing a cross-sectional design with 490 full-time workers the authors use the NEO-International Personality Item Pool and the Learning Styles Profiler to examine differences in the FFM and HMLP in the prediction of maverickism. Findings– Results with the FFM, identify extraversion, openness and (low) agreeableness as significant predictors of maverickism. All factors of the HMLP (except conscientious learning) significantly predict maverickism. Hierarchal regression analysis shows that the HMLP accounts for an additional 21 percent of variance in maverickism over and above that of the FFM. Research limitations/implications – The authors have tested and built theory by identifying not only what predicts maverickism, but also how the learning processes of the HMLP interrelate to predict maverickism. Practical implications– Managers interested in developing the maverick potential of their employees will find this study useful because it identifies what to look for in maverick workers. Social implications – Individuals high in maverickism have the potential for radical innovation. Understanding how to identify and develop these individuals may lead to larger societal benefits. Originality/value– The authors are the first to use the HMLP to test maverickism. The research highlights the importance of both personality and learning processes in maverickism.
  Marshall, S., Parker, D., Ciarrochi, J.,Sahdra, B., & Jackson, C, Heaven, P. In press; accepted Sept 9, 2014 Self-compassion protects against the negative effects of low self-esteem: A longitudinal study in a large adolescent sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 74, 116-121. Low self-esteem is usually linked to negative outcomes such as poor mental health, but is this always the case? Based on a contextual behavioural model, we reasoned that self-compassion would weaken the link between low self-esteem and low mental health. Self-compassion involves accepting self-doubt, negative self-evaluations and adversity as part of the human condition. In a longitudinal study of 2448 Australian adolescents, we assessed how self-esteem interacted with self-compassion in Grade 9 to predict changes in mental health over the next year. As hypothesized, self-compassion moderated the influence of selfesteem on mental health. Amongst those high in self-compassion, low self-esteem had little effect on mental health, suggesting a potentially potent buffering affect. We discuss the possibility that fostering self-compassion among adolescents can reduce their need for self-esteem in situations that elicit selfdoubt.
  Jonason, P.K., Wee, S., Li, N.P., & Jackson, C. 2014 Occupational niches and the Dark Triad traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 69, 119-123. Our research focused on the vocational interests correlated with the Dark Triad traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism). By understanding how these traits facilitate the structuring of one’s environment, we hypothesized that psychopaths will be more interested in realistic and practical careers, narcissists will be more interested in artistic, enterprising, and social careers, and Machiavellians will be more interested in avoiding careers that involve caring for others. In two cross-sectional studies (N = 424; N = 274), we provide general support for these hypotheses. Overall, our study showed those high on the Dark Triad traits may structure their social environment through idealized career preferences. We also show that sex differences in career preferences might be a function, in part of, individual differences in the Dark Triad traits
  Gardiner, E., Jackson, C. &  Loxton, N. 2014 Left Hemispheric Lateral Preference and High Neuroticism Predict Disinhibition in two Go/No-Go Experiments. Journal of Personality, 83, 84–96. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12084 Although disinhibition is widely implicated in impulse-control-related psychopathologies, debate remains regarding the underlying approach and avoidance processes of this construct. In two studies, we simultaneously tested three competing models in which varying levels of extraversion, neuroticism, and hemispheric lateral preference are associated with disinhibition. In both studies (Study 1, N = 92; Study 2, N = 124), undergraduate students were randomly allocated to one of two versions of the go/no-go task: one where participants were primed through reward to make more “go” responses and another where no such priming occurred. Neuroticism, extraversion, and hemispheric lateral preference measures were also collected. Across both studies, disinhibition was greatest in individuals who reported both a left hemispheric lateral preference and high neuroticism. This pattern was only found for those who were primed through reward to make more “go” responses. There was no association with extraversion. Contrary to previous research, our results suggest that left hemispheric asymmetry and neuroticism and not extraversion drive disinhibited approach, following the establishment of a prepotent approach response set. This has salient implications for the theoretical understanding of disinhibited behavior, as well as for the study of continued maladaptive approach behavior.
rRST Walker, B., & Jackson, C. J. 2013 How the Five Factor Model and revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory predict divergent thinking. Personality and Individual Differences. From the Five Factor Model (FFM), we hypothesized openness to experience would positively predict divergent thinking. From revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (r-RST), we hypothesized revised Behavioural Approach System (r-BAS) would positively predict divergent thinking and revised Fight/ Flight/Freezing System (r-FFFS) would negatively predict divergent thinking. Moreover, we hypothesized that r-FFFS would incrementally predict divergent thinking after controlling for significant FFM traits. Consistent with Elliot and Thrash (2010), we also hypothesized an indirect effects model with r-BAS predicting divergent thinking through mastery. Using 130 participants, we found support or partial support for all hypotheses. Our results indicate that biological factors of personality associated with r-RST as well as openness to experience predict divergent thinking. The distinction between fear and anxiety in r-RST was also supported with fear and not anxiety negatively predicting divergent thinking.
rRST Jackson, C. J., Loxton, N. J., Harnett, P. H. & Ciarochi, J. 2013 Original and revised reinforcement sensitivity theory in the prediction of executive functioning: A test of relationships between dual systems. Personality and Individual Differences Executive functioning relates to cognitive processes that are effortful and controlled, whereas processes underlying personality are assumed to be routine and automatic (Elliot & Thrash, 2002, 2010). We evaluated potential influences between these dual systems by examining the link between executive functioning and biologically based personality measures associated with original reinforcement sensitivity theory (o-RST) and revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (r-RST). Results showed that flight (a tendency to commit to poorly planned, escape behavior) negatively predicted executive functioning. We find partial support for the general hypothesis of links between the dual systems. Generally, r-RST was a better predictor of executive functioning than o-RST. The proposed structure of the r-RST measurement model was confirmed
rRST Harnett, P. H., Loxton, N. J., & Jackson, C. J. 2013 Revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory: Implications for psychopathology and psychological health. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 3, 432–437 We examined the utility of revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (r-RST) in comparison with original Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (o-RST) in further understanding psychopathology and well-being. In line with theory, we found o-BIS to be a non-specific predictor of anxiety and stress whereas r-BIS and r-FFFS scales were predictors of anxiety and stress. Consistent with the joint systems hypothesis, depression was associated with r-BIS, but only when r-BAS was low. The r-BAS, low o-BIS and low r-Freeze were the only predictors of psychological well-being. These findings suggest that r-BAS as we measured it reflects more functional approach behaviour than measures of o-BAS. Further, while o-BIS appears to be associated with broad negative affective states, the parsing of r-BIS from fear pote
  Jackson, C. J., Hobman, E., Jimmieson, N., & Martin, R. 2012 Do left and right asymmetries of hemispheric preference interact with attention to predict local and global performance in applied tasks. Laterality. Many cognitive neuroscience studies show that the ability to attend to and identify global or local information is lateralised between the two hemispheres in the human brain; the left hemisphere is biased towards the local level, whereas the right hemisphere is biased towards the global level. Results of two studies show attention-focused people with a right ear preference (biased towards the left hemisphere) are better at local tasks, whereas people with a left ear preference (biased towards the right hemisphere) are better at more global tasks. In a third study we determined if right hemisphere-biased followers who attend to global stimuli are likely to have a stronger relationship between attention and globally based supervisor ratings of performance. Results provide evidence in support of this hypothesis. Our research supports our model and suggests that the interaction between attention and lateral preference is an important and novel predictor of work-related outcomes.
HMLP Jackson, C. J., Izadikah, Z., & Oei, T. 2012 Mechanisms underlying REBT in mood disordered patients: Predicting depression from the hybrid model of learning. Journal of Affective Disorders, 139, 30-39. Background: Jackson's (2005, 2008a) hybrid model of learning identifies a number of learning mechanisms that lead to the emergence and maintenance of the balance between rationality and irrationality. We test a general hypothesis that Jackson's model will predict depressive symptoms, such that poor learning is related to depression. We draw comparisons between Jackson's model and Ellis' (2004) Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Theory (REBT) and thereby provide a set of testable learning mechanisms potentially underlying REBT. Methods and results: Results from 80 patients diagnosed with depression completed the learning styles profiler (LSP; Jackson, 2005) and two measures of depression. Results provide support for the proposed model of learning and further evidence that low rationality is a key predictor of depression. Conclusions: We conclude that the hybrid model of learning has the potential to explain some of the learning and cognitive processes related to the development and maintenance of irrational beliefs and depression.
HMLP Izadikah, Z., Jackson, C., & Ireland, M. J. 2012 The Effect of Context on Performance Approach Goal Orientation. American Journal of Psychology, 125, 193-207. We proposed and tested a theoretical model that argues that different work contexts influence the relationship between performance approach orientation and work performance. Across three studies and three different types of work performance, results consistently supported a theorized interaction between performance approach orientation and rewarding climate. Two self-rating studies showed generally similar interactions, with some important differences in the significance of the simple slopes. Larger differences emerged between the self-rating and a supervisor rating study. The present research supports a model in which type of work (part time vs. full time), rewarding climate, the criterion of performance (supervisor vs. self-rating), and type of work performance are important contextual components of a model relating performance approach orientation to work performance.
  Hobman, E. V., Jackson, C. J., Jimmieson, N. L., & Martin, R.  2011 The effects of transformational leadership behaviours on follower outcomes: An identity-based analysis. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(4), 553-580.    Winner of best leadership paper of the year award by the Journal. The aim of this study was to explore two of the mechanisms by which transformational leaders have a positive influence on followers. It examined the mediating role of follower’s leader and group identification on the associations among different transformational leader behaviours and follower job satisfaction and supervisor-rated job performance. One hundred and seventy-nine healthcare employees and 44 supervisors participated in the study. The results from multilevel structural equation modelling provided results that partially supported the predicted model. Identification with the leader significantly mediated the positive associations between supportive leadership, intellectual stimulation, personal recognition, in the prediction of job satisfaction and job performance. Leader identification also mediated the relationship between supportive leadership, intellectual stimulation, personal recognition, and group identification. However, group identification did not mediate the associations between vision leadership and inspirational communication, in the prediction of job satisfaction and job performance. The results highlight the role of individualized forms of leadership and leader identification in enhancing follower outcomes.
Maverick Gardiner, E. & Jackson, C. J. 2011 Workplace Mavericks: How personality and risk-taking propensity predicts Maverickism. British Journal of Psychology, 103, 497-519. We examine the relationship between lateral preference, the Five-Factor Model of personality, risk-taking propensity, and maverickism. We take an original approach by narrowing our research focus to only functional aspects of maverickism. Results with 458 full-time workers identify lateral preference as a moderator of the neuroticism– maverickism relationship. Extraversion, openness to experience, and low agreeableness were also each found to predict maverickism. The propensity of individuals high in maverickism to take risks was also found to be unaffected by task feedback. Our results highlight the multifaceted nature of maverickism, identifying both personality and task conditions as determinants of this construct.
  Furnham, A., & Jackson, C. J 2011 Human resource and related practitioner reactions to work related psychological tests. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 26, 549-565. Purpose – This study seeks to investigate human resource practitioners’ attitudes and beliefs about work related psychological tests. The purpose was to look at the structure and correlates of those beliefs. Design/methodology/approach – In all, 255 practitioners from human resource and related disciplines completed a 64-item questionnaire on their attitudes to, and beliefs about, work-related psychological tests. Findings – Overall, the participants were positive about the validity and hence usefulness of tests. Factor analysis suggested that attitudes to tests fell into four easily identifiable factors (Test complexity, Practical application, Bias, and Usefulness of psychological tests). It was found that all four factors were predicted by age or educational qualifications or both. Research limitations/implications – The study had a restricted sample of test users. It would be interesting to test a bigger and more representative sample of those in HR, training and coaching and get more specific details on which tests they used, why those particular tests and how they used the data they provide. Originality/value – The aim of this study is to investigate whether practitioners generally find psychological tests in general useful, what aspects of psychological tests are most valued and what aspects are least liked. It also set out to determine whether the perceived scepticism toward, or enthusiasm for, psychological tests could be predicted by test user experience, and test user academic qualifications. Whist some survey studies have been interested in expert opinion, this study looked at practitioners from HR and related disciplines. Keywords Psychometric tests, Psychological tests, Workplace assessment, Practitioner, Test bias Paper type Research paper
HMLP Izadikah, Z., and Jackson C. J. 2011 Investigating the Moderating Effect of Rewarding Climate on Mastery Approach Orientation in the Prediction of Work Performance. British Journal of Psychology, 102, 204 - 222. The study of Mastery Approach Orientation as an achievement goal is central to the understanding of basic motivational processes though controversy surrounds its impact. This research extends the literature regarding this goal orientation by investigating the interaction between Mastery Approach Orientation and Rewarding Climate in the prediction of self and supervisors' ratings of work performance across two studies. Results indicated that Mastery Approach Orientation positively and consistently predicted self and supervisors’ ratings of work performance at high Rewarding Climates. At low Rewarding Climates, the relationship between Mastery Approach Orientation and performance was more variable across the studies and reasons for this are explored. The study of Mastery Approach Orientation as an achievement goal is central to theunderstanding of basic motivational processes though controversy surrounds its impact.This research extends the literature regarding this goal orientation by investigatingthe interaction between Mastery Approach Orientation and Rewarding Climate inthe prediction of self and supervisors’ ratings of work performance across twostudies. Results indicated that Mastery Approach Orientation positively and consistentlypredicted self and supervisors’ ratings of work performance at high Rewarding Climates.At low Rewarding Climates, the relationship between Mastery Approach Orientationand performance was more variable across the studies and reasons for this are explored.
HMLP Jackson, C. J. 2011 How sensation seeking provides a common basis for functional and dysfunctional outcomes. Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 29-36. This research determines if Mastery Goal Orientation mediates Sensation Seeking in the prediction of functional performance and if Sensation Seeking directly predicts dysfunctional behavior. Using two different measures of Sensation Seeking, a sample of fulltime Australian workers was used to test the proposed learning mechanism in the prediction of supervisor rated work outcomes, self-reported work outcomes, and self-reported dysfunctional behavior. As predicted, mediation and suppression analyses provided strong support for the proposed model but with just one of the measures of Sensation Seeking. It is concluded that this mechanism of learning has much to offer our understanding of functional and dysfunctional outcomes.
  Gullo, M. J., Ward, E., Dawe. S., Powell, J., & Jackson, C. J. 2011 Support for a two-factor model of impulsivity and hazardous substance use in British and Australian young adults. Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 10-18. Multiple lines of evidence suggest impulsivity comprises two distinct components relevant to substance misuse. Reward drive reflects sensitivity to rewarding stimuli and subsequent approach motivation. Rash impulsiveness reflects the ability to inhibit such approach behavior in light of negative consequences. However, several studies suggest the latter trait to be a more robust predictor. This begs the question as to whether a less parsimonious two-factor model is necessary. This study employed structural equation modeling to compare the fit of one- and two-factor impulsivity models to alcohol and drug use data provided by British (n = 183) and Australian (n = 271) young adults. Results consistently supported the two-factor model and its cross-cultural consistency, with rash impulsiveness being the more robust predictor.
EAR Jackson, C. J. 2011 Evidence of a relationship between Tympanic Membrane Temperature Ratio and Ear Preference. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 16, 107-124. Ear and eye preference are possible contralateral measures of hemispheric activity, but little physiological evidence in favour of this has ever been presented. It is suggested that tympanic membrane temperature (reflecting temperature of the tympanic membrane, ear canal, and surrounding tissue) is likely to be an index of local hemispheric activity since it provides a measure of heat generated by local neuronal processes. It is hypothesised that ear and eye preference will be contralaterally positively correlated with asymmetries in tympanic membrane temperature. Evidence from two points in time generally supports this perspective. Although relationships were not that strong and there were some inconsistencies, results provide evidence that sensory preferences (ear and eye preference) are useful and non-invasive predictors of stable asymmetries in hemispheric activity.
EAR Gullo, M. J., Jackson, C. J., & Dawe, S. 2010 Impulsivity and reversal learning in hazardous alcohol use. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 123-127 Research into the neuropsychological basis of impulsivity indicates that it may convey risk for substance misuse through an increased motivation to obtain rewards (‘‘reward drive”) and a propensity to act without forethought (‘‘rash impulsiveness”). A recent model of disinhibition has also specified a role for Neuroticism in those with left hemispheric preference, due to the association of this hemisphere with action goal tendencies. This study investigated the mediating role of reversal learning, a key component of adaptive decision-making, in the prediction of hazardous alcohol use from impulsivity traits. A sample of 165 college students were administered a probabilistic reversal learning task, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Sensitivity to Reward scale to measure reward drive, I7 (Impulsiveness) to measure rash impulsiveness, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised, and a self-report measure of ear preference to determine hemispheric preference. Results support the role of reward drive and rash impulsiveness in alcohol misuse, as well as rash impulsiveness, Neuroticism and lateral preference in poor reversal learning. However, there was no support for mediation, or an interaction between Neuroticism and lateral preference.
  Gardner, E. & Jackson, C. J. 2010 Eye color predicts disagreeableness in North Europeans: Support in favor of Frost (2006). Current Psychology, 29, 1-9. Abstract The current study investigates whether eye color provides a marker of Agreeableness in North Europeans. Extrapolating from Frost’s (2006) research uncovering an unusually diverse range of hair and eye color in northern Europe, we tested the hypothesis that light eyed individuals of North European descent would be less agreeable (a personality marker for competitiveness) when compared to their dark eyed counterparts, whereas there would be no such effect for people of European descent in general. The hypothesis was tested in Australia to provide consistent environmental conditions for both groups of people. Results support the hypothesis. Implications and conclusions are discussed.
  Gullo. M., Dawe, S., Kambouropoulos, N., Staiger, P. & Jackson C. 2010 Alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self efficacy mediate the association of impulsivity with alcohol use. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 34, 1-14. Background: Recent work suggests that 2 biologically based traits convey risk for alcohol mis-use: reward sensitivity drive and (rash) impulsiveness. However, the cognitive mechanismsthrough which these traits convey risk are unclear. This study tested a model predicting that therisk conveyed by reward sensitivity is mediated by a learning bias for the reinforcing outcomes ofalcohol consumption (i.e., positive alcohol expectancy). The model also proposed that the riskconveyed by rash impulsiveness (RI) is mediated by drinkers’ perceived ability to resist alcohol(i.e., drinking refusal self-efficacy).Methods: Study 1 tested the model in a sample of young adults (n = 342). Study 2 tested themodel in a sample of treatment-seeking substance abusers (n = 121). All participants completed abattery of personality, cognitive, and alcohol use questionnaires and models were tested usingstructural equation modeling.Results: In both studies, the hypothesized model was found to provide a good fit to the data,and a better fit than alternative models. In both young adults and treatment-seeking individuals,positive alcohol expectancy fully mediated the association between reward sensitivity and hazard-ous alcohol use. For treatment seekers, drinking refusal self-efficacy fully mediated the associationbetween RI and hazardous drinking. However, there was partial mediation in the young adultsample. Furthermore, neither trait was directly associated with the other cognitive mediator.Conclusions: The hypothesized model was confirmed on a large sample of young adults andreplicated on a sample of treatment-seeking substance abusers. Taken together, these findings shed further light on the mechanisms through which an impulsive temperament may convey riskfor alcohol misuse.
  Izadikah, Z., Jackson C. J., & Loxton, N. 2010 How the behavioral Approach System Predicts Everyday Life Outcomes. American Journal of Psychology, 123, 353-365. This study tested crucial components of Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory that have generally been overlooked in the literature. We tested whether the perceived amount of reward moderates the behavioral approach system (BAS) and the importance of reward mediates BAS in the prediction of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Results from 514 participants employed in part-time and full-time jobs provided support for our model, such that the indirect effect of BAS through the importance of reward was strongest when reward was provided. This model advances our understanding of reinforcement sensitivity theory and offers a solid foundation for predicting outcomes in everyday life.
  O'Connor, P. & Jackson, C. J. 2010 Applying a Psychobiological Model of Personality to the Study of Leadership.. Journal of Individual Differences, 3,185–197 Abstract. Cloninger’s psychobiological model of temperament and character is a general model of personality that has been widely used in clinical psychology, but has seldom been applied in other domains. In this research we apply Cloninger’s model to the study of leadership. Our study comprised 81 participants who took part in a diverse range of small group tasks. Participants rotated through tasks and groups and rated each other on “emergent leadership.” As hypothesized, leader emergence tended to be consistent regardless of the specific tasks and groups. It was found that personality factors from Cloninger, Svrakic, and Przybeck’s (1993) model could explain trait-based variance in emergent leadership. Results also highlight the role of “cooperativeness” in the prediction of leadership emergence. Implications are discussed in terms of our theoretical understanding of trait-based leadership, and more generally in terms of the utility of Cloninger’s model in leadership research.
rRST Jackson, C. J. 2009 Jackson-5 Scales of revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (r-RST) and their application to dysfunctional real world outcomes. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 556-569. Revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (r-RST) is a neurobiological theory of personality which has many differences compared to the original version. This highlights the need for measurement scales to reflect the revised theory. Study 1 uses exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to develop and test new scales (the ‘Jackson-5’) which are shown to be internally reliable, have scale inter-relationships matching theory, and to have desirable construct validity properties. Study 2 compares r-RST with original RST in the prediction of delinquency and psychopathy in students. Results suggest the new scales capture the main properties of r-RST and indicate that r-RST provides a substantially different explanation of the personality basis of dysfunctional behavior compared to original RST.
HMLP Jackson, C. J., Baguma, P., & Furnham, A. 2009 Predicting Grade Point Average from the hybrid model of learning in personality: Consistent findings from Ugandan and Australian Students. Educational Psychology, 29, 747-761. Jackson developed a hybrid model of learning in personality, known as the Learning Styles Profiler (LSP), which seeks to explain personality in terms of biological, socio-cognitive and experiential processes. The hybrid model argues that functional learning outcomes can be understood in terms of how cognitions and experiences re-express sensation seeking as functional learning. In two studies from Uganda and Australia (n = 136 and n = 290 respectively), grade point average (GPA) of students was successfully predicted from the hybrid model. Results show evidence of three indirect pathways from sensation seeking through cognitions to GPA and provide a new understanding of the way in which personality can predict performance.
HMLP Jackson, C. J., Hobman, E., Jimmieson, N., & Martin. R. 2009 Comparing Different Approach and Avoidance Models of Learning and Personality in the Prediction of Work, University and Leadership Outcomes. British Journal of Psychology, 100, 283-312. Jackson (2005) developed a hybrid model of personality and learning, known as the learning styles profiler (LSP) which was designed to span biological, socio-cognitive, and experiential research foci of personality and learning research. The hybrid model argues that functional and dysfunctional learning outcomes can be best understood in terms of how cognitions and experiences control, discipline, and re-express the biologically based scale of sensation-seeking. In two studies with part-time workers undertaking tertiary education (N ¼ 137 and 58), established models of approach and avoidance from each of the three different research foci were compared with Jackson’s hybrid model in their predictiveness of leadership, work, and university outcomes using self-report and supervisor ratings. Results showed that the hybrid model was generally optimal and, as hypothesized, that goal orientation was a mediator of sensation-seeking on outcomes (work performance, university performance, leader behaviours, and counterproductive work behaviour). Our studies suggest that the hybrid model has considerable promise as a predictor of work and educational outcomes as well as dysfunctional outcomes.
  Izadikah, Z., Jackson C. J., & Loxton, N. 2009 An integrative approach to personality: Behavioural approach system, mastery approach orientation and environmental cues in the prediction of work performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 590-595. This research presents theoretical and empirical evidence to show the usefulness of a moderated mediation model to test individual differences in Behavioural Approach System in the prediction of workplace performance. We consider mastery approach orientation as the mediator in the relationship between Behavioural Approach System (BAS) and work performance. Additionally, we examined the moderated effect of a rewarding climate on the indirect effect of BAS in the prediction of work performance. Results from 123 supervisors’ ratings of employees’ work performance supported the model whereby the indirect effect of BAS on work performance via mastery orientation was strongest when the psychological climate of the organization was also rewarding. This model further advances our understanding of how individual differences in conjunction with contextual factors may influence work-related behaviour
  Jackson, C. J. 2008  Prediction of Hemispheric Asymmetry as Measured by Handedness from Digit Length and 2D:4D Digit Ratio. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition,13, 1, 34 – 50. Hemispheric asymmetry is widely theorised as having a basis in prenatal androgen levels. However, these theories ignore a second round of asymmetrical changes in the brain, which occur at the same time as post-puberty surges in androgens. Hemispheric asymmetry in adults might therefore be explained in terms of the joint effects of prenatal and post-pubertal androgen levels. Evidence is emerging that the ratio between the length of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D) is related to prenatal androgen exposure, and that digit length is related to postpuberty levels of androgen exposure. In this study, hemispheric asymmetry is measured as handedness, prenatal androgen levels as 2D:4D, and post-puberty androgen levels as digit length. Right-handedness is associated with consistent prenatal and post puberty androgen release whereas left-handedness is associated with mixed levels of androgen release. Age, race, and sex effects were explored but were not significant.
HMLP O’Connor, P. C. & Jackson, C. J. 2008 Learning to be Saints or Sinners: The Indirect Pathway from Sensation Seeking to Behavior through Mastery Orientation. Journal of Personality, 76, 1-20. Recently, a model of learning has been proposed that argues that Sensation Seeking indirectly predicts functional and dysfunctional behaviors through Mastery Orientation. Central components of the model were tested across two studies. Study 1 tested the proposed indirect effect in the prediction of functional behavior using an objective learning task. Study 2 tested the proposed indirect effects in the prediction of functional and dysfunctional self-report behavior across two very different samples. Regression analyses in both studies generally supported the proposed model.
  Helmes, E., McNeill, P. D., Holden, R. R., & Jackson C. J. 2008 The construct of alexithymia: A defence mechanism under another name? Journal of Clinical Psychology. Alexithymia is a dimensional personality construct that encompasses a cluster of cognitive and affective characteristics relating to difficulty identifying and describing feelings, limited imaginal capacity, and having an externally oriented thinking style. Attempts to explain the etiology of high levels of alexithymia have resulted in disagreements regarding the relationship between alexithymia and psychological defense mechanisms. Much of the previous research suggests strong associations between alexithymia and immature or maladaptive defense styles. To examine these relationships using correlations, multiple regression and factor analytic techniques, three nonclinical populations in Australia and Canada were studied with a view to evaluating the association of defense mechanisms and response styles with alexithymia. Our results support the association of alexithymia with emotional inhibition, but extend those associations to immature defense styles.
EAR Jackson, C. J. 2008 When Avoidance Leads to Approach: How Ear Preference Interacts With Neuroticism To Predict Disinhibited Approach. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 13, 333-373. A series of eight studies focuses on how the avoidance system represented by neuroticism can lead to disinhibited approach tendencies. Based on research which argues that hemispheric preferences predispose the left hemisphere to fast action goal formation, and contralateral pathways between ear and brain, it is proposed that (a) people with a right ear preference will engage in fast action goal formation and (b) disinhibited approach results from neurotic people who reduce anxiety by means of fast action goal formation. Study 1 provides evidence from telesales operators of a link between self-rated ear preference and objective ear preference and provides evidence that disinhibited approach is predicted by a neuroticism ear preference interaction. Studies 2, 3, and 4 provide evidence that ear preference is related to other measures of objective aural preference and action goal formation. Studies 5, 6, 7, and 8 provide evidence that the neuroticismear preference interaction predicts a variety of different disinhibited approach tendencies.
  O’Connor, P. & Jackson, C. J.  2008 The factor structure and validity of the Learning Styles Profiler (LSP). European Journal of Psychological Assessment. The Learning Styles Profiler (LSP; Jackson, 2002) is a modern measure of individual differences in learning style. The LSP is based on a neuropsychological model of learning, modeled on principles of approach and avoidance, and argues for the division of personality into temperament and character. There has been little research into the psychometric structure and predictive validity of this instrument. In Study 1, the factor structure of the LSP is examined, and in Study 2 the criterion-related validity of the LSP is assessed. Results support the proposed factor structure of the LSP and show that 3 of the 4 LSP scales are significant predictors of Job Performance.
  Cooper, A., Smillie, L. D., & Jackson, C. J. 2008  A trait conceptualisation of reward-reactivity: psychometric properties of the Appetitive Motivation Scale (AMS) Scale. Journal of Individual Differences. The Appetitive Motivation Scale (AMS; Jackson & Smillie, 2004) represents a recent attempt to conceptualize individual differences in the functioning of Gray’s (1981) Behavioral Activation/Approach System (BAS). In this paper we subject the AMS to psychometric scrutiny via factor analysis, item response theory (IRT) analysis, and concurrent construct validation. In Study 1 (N = 1,366 university students, 53% male), results from factor analysis (FA) and IRT led to the removal of several problematic items from the scale. The revised AMS was shown to have improved unidimensional structure and item properties. In Study 2 (N = 122 university students, 20% male), correlational data and factor analysis indicated that the revised AMS was: (1) highly related to the original scale along with various BAS-related measures, and (2) more strongly related to a reward-reactivity factor than an impulsivity factor, relative to other putative BAS measures. We conclude that the improved AMS is a promising tool for future research.
Jackson, C. J. & Smillie, L. D.  2008 How Introspections Concerning Cloninger’s Concepts of Temperament and Character Influence Eysenckian Personality Structure. Current Psychology. Two studies examine the consequences of distinguishing between selfreport responses on the Eysenck Personality Profiler (Eysenck et al. The European Journal of Psychological Assessment 8: 109–117, 1992) in terms of Cloninger’s concepts of Temperament and Character (Cloninger et al. Archives of General Psychiatry 50: 975–990, 1993). Character is thought to reflect conscious, maturation-related influences on personality, while Temperament is thought to reflect instinctive, biologically-based influences. In Study one, one-hundred and thirty-three participants (76.6% female) classify primary scales of the Eysenck Personality Profiler as relating to Character or Temperament. Impulsiveness, Anxiety and Aggression are perceived as the most Temperament-based scales, while Responsibility, Manipulativeness and Assertiveness are perceived as the most Character-based scales. In Study two, one-hundred and seventy-seven participants (74.4% female) complete the Eysenck Personality Profiler using the standard response scale, while one-hundred and thirty-eight participants (62.3% female) complete the Eysenck Personality Profiler using a scale which distinguishes between Character and Temperament. Results demonstrate differences in the factor structure and concurrent validity of the Eysenck Personality Profiler when scoring distinguishes between Temperament and Character. We conclude that the concepts of Temperament and Character might usefully be applied to Eysenck’s personality taxonomy.

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Smillie, L. D., Dalgleish, L. I., & Jackson, C. J. 2007 Personality, learning and motivation: Two tests of J. A. Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 476-489. According to Gray’s (1973) Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), a Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and a Behavioral Activation System (BAS) mediate effects of goal conflict and reward on behavior. BIS functioning has been linked with individual differences in trait anxiety and BAS functioning with individual differences in trait impulsivity. In this article, it is argued that behavioral outputs of the BIS and BAS can be distinguished in terms of learning and motivation processes and that these can be operationalized using the Signal Detection Theory measures of response-sensitivity and response-bias. In Experiment 1, two measures of BIS-reactivity predicted increased response-sensitivity under goal conflict, whereas one measure of BAS-reactivity predicted increased responsesensitivity under reward. In Experiment 2, two measures of BIS-reactivity predicted response-bias under goal conflict, whereas a measure of BAS-reactivity predicted motivation response-bias under reward. In both experiments, impulsivity measures did not predict criteria for BASreactivity as traditionally predicted by RST.
rRST Smillie, L. D., Jackson, C. J., & Dalgleish, L. I. 2006 Conceptual distinctions among Carver and White’s (1994) BAS scales: A reward-reactivity versus trait impulsivity perspective. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1039-1050. The ‘BIS/BAS scales’ (Carver & White, 1994) is the most widely cited inventory for assessing Gray’s (1982,1991) Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) of personality. A peculiarity of this instrument is its three-factor representation of Gray’s Behavioural Activation System (BAS), which mediates reactions to reward. While the BAS was initially proposed as the causal basis of Impulsivity, recent arguments suggest that Impulsivity is related to but distinct from reward-reactivity. In this paper, two studies examined Carver and White’s BAS scales in terms of factor structure, and convergent/divergent validity when predicting proxies of Impulsivity and reward-reactivity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed structural distinctions between the three BAS scales, and multivariate regression suggested that two of the scales (Drive and Reward-Responsiveness) reflect key concepts of the BAS, while the third (Fun-Seeking) has a broader focus, being equally related to reward-reactivity and Impulsivity.
A* Smillie, L.., Yeo, G., & Furnham, A. & Jackson, C.  J. 2006 Benefits of All Work and No Play: The Relationship between Neuroticism and Performance as a Function of Resource Allocation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 139-155. The authors evaluate a model suggesting that the performance of highly neurotic individuals, relative to their stable counterparts, is more strongly influenced by factors relating to the allocation of attentional resources. First, an air traffic control simulation was used to examine the interaction between effort intensity and scores on the Anxiety subscale of Eysenck Personality Profiler Neuroticism in the prediction of task performance. Overall effort intensity enhanced performance for highly anxious individuals more so than for individuals with low anxiety. Second, a longitudinal field study was used to examine the interaction between office busyness and Eysenck Personality Inventory Neuroticism in the prediction of telesales performance. Changes in office busyness were associated with greater performance improvements for highly neurotic individuals compared with less neurotic individuals. These studies suggest that highly neurotic individuals outperform their stable counterparts in a busy work environment or if they are expending a high level of effort.

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Smillie, L. D., Pickering, A. D. & Jackson, C. J.  2006 The new RST: Recent revisions to Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, and implications for psychometric measurement.   Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 320-335. In this article, we review recent modifications to Jeffrey Gray's (1973, 1991) reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST), and attempt to draw implicationsforpsychometric measurement ofpersonality traits. First, we consider Gray and McNaughton's (2000) functional revisions to the biobehavioral systems ofRST Second, we evaluate recent clarifications relating to interdependent effects that these systems may have on behavior in addition to or in place ofseparable effects (e.g., Corr, 2001; Pickering, 1997). Finally, we consider ambiguities regarding the exact trait dimension to which Gray's "reward system" corresponds. From this review, we suggest that future work is needed to distinguish psychometric measures of (a) fear from anxiety and (b) reward-reactivity from trait impulsivity. We also suggest, on the basis ofinterdependent system views ofRST and associated exploration using formal models, that traits that are based upon RSTare likely to have substantial intercorrelations. Finally, we advise that more substantive work is required to define relevant constructs and behaviors in RST before we can be confident in our psychometric measures of them.
  Smillie, L. D., & Jackson, C. J. 2006 Functional Impulsivity and Reward-Reactivity. Journal of Personality, 74, 47-83. In this article, we attempt to integrate Dickman’s (1990) descriptive concept of Functional Impulsivity (FI) with Gray’s (1970, 1991) Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST). Specifically, we consider that FI bears great conceptual similarity to Gray’s concept of rewardreactivity, which is thought to be caused by the combined effects of a Behavioral Activation System (BAS) and Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS). In our first study, we examine the construct validity and structural correlates of FI. Results indicate that FI is related positively to measures of BAS and Extraversion, negatively to measures of BIS and Neuroticism, and is separate from Psychoticism and typical trait Impulsivity, which Dickman calls Dysfunctional Impulsivity (DI). In our second study, we use a go/no-go discrimination task to examine the relationship between FI and response bias under conditions of rewarding and punishing feedback. Results indicate that FI, along with two measures of BAS, predicted the development of a response bias for the rewarded alternative. In comparison, high DI appeared to reflect indifference toward either reward or punishment. We consider how these findings might reconcile the perspectives of Gray and Dickman and help clarify the broader understanding of Impulsivity.
  McAlistair, A.., Pachana, N., & Jackson, C. J. 2005 Predictors of Young Dating Adults’ Inclination to Engage in Extradyadic Sexual Activities: A Multi-Perspective Study. British Journal of Psychology, 96, 331-350. Using a multi-perspective vignette design, we explored predictors of young peoples’ (N ¼ 119) propensity to engage in unfaithful activities while dating. Demographic measures, a datding investment model, and measures of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity were used to predict inclination to engage in each of two extradyadic activities (kissing and sexual activity). The results of moderated multiple regression analyses revealed that a respondent’s number of sexual partners, level of dysfunctional impulsivity, satisfaction with current relationship, and quality of relationship alternatives significantly predicted inclination to engage in both of the extradyadic activities. Consistent with previous findings, gender only showed significant predictive value in relation to extradyadic sex inclination. Moreover, the association between sex, love, and marriage interacted with gender in the prediction of both extradyadic activities and interacted with commitment in the prediction of extradyadic sex inclination. Suggestions for future research in this area are offered in light of these new findings.
  Smillie, L. D. & Jackson, C. J. 2005 The appetitive motivation scale and other BAS measures in the prediction of approach and active-avoidance. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 981-994. The Appetitive Motivation Scale (Jackson & Smillie, 2004) is a new trait conceptualisation of Grays (1970, 1991) Behavioural Activation System. In this experiment we explore relationships that the Appetitive Motivation Scale and other measures of Grays model have with Approach and Active Avoidance responses. Using a sample of 144 undergraduate students, both Appetitive Motivation and Sensitivity to Reward (from the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire, SPSRQ; Torrubia, Avila, Molto, & Ceseras, 2001), were found to be significant predictors of Approach and Active Avoidance response latency. This confirms previous experimental validations of the SPSRQ (e.g., Avila, 2001) and provides the first experimental evidence for the validity of the Appetitive Motivation scale. Consistent with interactive views of Grays model (e.g., Corr, 2001), high SPSRQ Sensitivity to Punishment diminished the relationship between Sensitivity to Reward and our BAS criteria. Measures of BIS did not however interact in this way with the appetitive motivation scale. A surprising result was the failure for any of Carver and Whites (1994) BAS scales to correlate with RST criteria. Implications of these findings and potential future directions are discussed
EAR Jackson, C. J. 2005 How preferred ear for listening moderates emotional cognitions in the prediction of personality.   Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 10, 305-320. Two studies investigate how cognitions of aurally presented information interact with aural preference (self-reported preferred-ear for listening) in the prediction of personality. In Study 1, participants provided attractiveness cognitions of various statements after listening to aurally presented material. Aural preference x attractiveness interactions significantly predicted Extraversion and Neuroticism. In Study 2, participants provided cognitions of pleasantness from various scenarios. An aural preference x pleasantness interaction significantly predicted Neuroticism. Although, other interpretations are possible, I conclude that these findings support the idea of aural preference as a useful measure of hemispheric asymmetry, such that the right hemisphere (left aural preference) provides facilitation of emotional expression whereas the left hemisphere (right aural preference) provides suppression. My findings support a more historical view of emotional asymmetry than the more modern approach-avoidance perspective and suggest that moderating effects of hemispheric asymmetry are important to include in studies investigating emotions associated with personality
  Levine, S. Z., Petrides, K. V., Davis, S, Jackson, C. J. Howell, P. 2005 The Use of Structural Equation Modeling in Stuttering Research: Concepts and Directions. Stammering Research, 1, 344-363 This article provides a brief introduction to the history and applications of the class of data analytic techniques collectively known as Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Using an example based on psychological factors thought to affect the likelihood of stuttering, we discuss the issues of specification, identification, and model fit and modification in SEM. We also address points relating to model specification strategies, item parceling, advanced modeling, and suggestions for reporting SEM analyses. It is noted that SEM techniques can contribute to the elucidation of the developmental pathways that lead to stuttering.
  Jackson, C. J. & Smillie, L. D. 2004 Appetitive motivation predicts the majority of personality and an ability measure: a comparison of BAS measures and a re-evaluation of the importance of RST. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1627-1636. Our first study develops a measure of appetitive motivation and our second study compares several measures of Grays (1987) behaviour activation system (BAS) in the prediction of the surface scales of personality. In particular, we were interested in determining the utility of the new appetitive motivation scale and Dickmans functional impulsivity scale. In comparison to other well-known measures, both scales were generally good predictors. We conclude that the appetitive motivation scale is a promising measure of BAS based upon construct validation. Contrary to previous studies which have suggested that BAS is a generally poor predictor of the surface scales of personality, we discovered appetitive motivation to be an important predictor of personality in general. Interestingly, the scale was also predictive of scores on the Baddeley reasoning test.
EPP Francis, L. J. & Jackson, C.J 2004 Which version of the Eysenck Personality Profiler is best? 6- 12- or 20- items per scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 1659-1666. Data provided by 400 first year undergraduate students were analysed to develop two short forms of the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP) in which each of the 22 primary scales is assessed by a 6-item and a 12- item version instead of the usual 20-item per scale measure.In comparison with the 6-item per scale measure, the 12-item version retains more of the characteristics of the long version and seems a good compromise between quality of data and administration time.
EPP Jones, S. J., Francis, L. J. & Jackson, C. J. 2004 The relationship between religion and anxiety: a study among Anglican clergymen and clergywomen. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 32, 137-142. The 20-item anxiety scale proposed by the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP) was completed by 1,148 Anglican male clergy and 523 Anglican female clergy during their first year in ordained ministry. The data demonstrate that male clergy recorded higher scores on the index of anxiety than men in general. Female clergy recorded lower levels on the index of anxiety than women in general. These findings are consistent with the findings from earlier studies that male clergy tend to project a characteristically feminine personality profile while female clergy tend to project a characteristically masculine personality profile.
EPP Jackson, C. J. & Francis, L. J. 2004 Primary scale structure of the Eysenck Personality Profiler.   Current Psychology, 22, 295-305. Whether three or five dimensions are best able to explain and describe personality has been one of the major questions debated by personality researchers in recent times. The primary scales of the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP) and the short version (EPP-S) were examined using a sample of 400 students to determine their factor structure. Results by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the EPP fits both a three- and five-factor structure reasonably well, while the EPP-S has a much better threefactor structure. The differences are explained in terms of the number of primary scales included by the authors in each of the tests. It is concluded that it is premature to believe that the five-factor structure provides the best description of personality.
EPP Francis, L. J., Jackson, C. J., Jones, S. H. 2004 Assessing the personality of clergy: Abbreviated Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP-A).   Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 15, 1 – 16. Data provided by 400 first year undergraduate students were analysed to develop two short forms of the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP) in which each of the 22 primary scales is assessed by a 6-item and a 12- item version instead of the usual 20-item per scale measure.In comparison with the 6-item per scale measure, the 12-item version retains more of the characteristics of the long version and seems a good compromise between quality of data and administration time.
EPP Hills, P, Francis, L. J., Argyle, M., & Jackson, C. J. 2004 Primary personality trait correlates of Religious practice and orientation. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 61-74. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between Eysenck’s primary personality factors and various aspects of religious orientation and practice. Some 400 UK undergraduates completed questionnaires constructed from the Batson and Schoenrade Religious Life Inventory (Batson & Schoenrade, 1991) and the EysenckPersonality Profiler (Eysenck, Barrett, Wilson, & Jackson, 1992). As is generally found, all the religious variables correlated negatively with the higher order personality factor of psychoticism. In contrast, among the primary factors, those associated with neuroticism appeared to be the strongest indicators of religiosity. In particular, all the primary traits classically linked to neuroticism correlate positively with the quest orientation. However, fewer primary traits predict religious behaviour in regression and of these, a sense of guilt is the greatest and a common predictor of extrinsic, intrinsic and quest religiosities. Upon factor analysis of the significant personality predictors together with the three religious orientations, the orientations formed a single discrete factor, which implies that extrinsic, intrinsic and quest religiosities have more in common with one another than with any of the personality traits included in the study. This suggests that religious awareness may itself be an important individual difference that is distinct from those generally associated with models of personality.
EPP Levine, S. Z., & Jackson, C. J. 2004 Eysenck's theory of crime revisited: Factors or primary scales? Legal and Criminological Psychology, 9, 1-18. Purpose. This study aims to advance the original formulation of Eysenck’s theory of criminality from the factorial level to suggest that primary scales of personality best determine reports of delinquency. Method. Two self-report studies were conducted. The Žfirst consisted of 101 students and the second used an additional 101 students. The first study used measures of Self-Reported Delinquency (SRD) and Socialisation (Gough & Peterson, 1952) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised Edition (EPQ-R; H.J. Eysenck & Eysenck, 1991). The second study complemented the Ž first study to utilize the EPQ-R and SRD only.  Results. A series of exploratory hierarchical multiple entry regressions of the factors in the first study demonstrate that high Psychoticism predicts SRD, whereas high Psychoticism and Neuroticism predict Under-socialization. The primary scales of Disrespect for Rules, Depressed and Need for Stimulation significantly predict both criteria. The second study extends the Ž first study through structural equation modelling to provide acceptable evidence of the concurrent validity of these primary scales with SRD. Conclusions. We propose that the significant primary scales of personality provide a clear reformulation of Eysenck’s original theory of criminality as they explain the variance in delinquency and socialization in a systematic manner. Furthermore, primary scales provide a theoretical framework for behavioural interventions, as required by Blackburn (2000).
rRST Jackson, C. J.  & Francis, L. J. 2004 Are interactions in Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory proximal or distal in the prediction of religiosity: A test of the joint subsystems hypothesis. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1197-1209 Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) consists of the Behavioural Activation System (BAS) which is the basis of Impulsivity, and Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) which is the basis of Anxiety.In this study, Impulsivity and Anxiety were used as distal predictors of attitudes to religion in the prediction of three religious dependent variables (Church attendance, Amount of prayer, and Importance of church). We hypothesised that Impulsivity would independently predict a Rewarding attitude to the Church and that Anxiety would independently predict an Anxious attitude to the church, and that these attitudes would be proximal predictors of our dependent variables.Moreover, we predicted that interactions between predictors would be proximal.Using structural equation modelling, data from 400 participants supported the hypotheses.We also tested Eysenck’s personality scales of Extraversion and Neuroticism and found a key path of the structural equation model to be non-significant.
EPP Petrides, K. V., Jackson, C. J., Furnham, A., Levine, S. Z.  2003 Exploring Issues of Personality Measurement and Structure through the Development of a Revised Short Form of the Eysenck Personality Profiler Journal of Personality Assessment, 81, 272-281. In this article, we develop a revised short form of the original Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP; H. J. Eysenck & Wilson, 1991). In addition, we address topics of broad theoretical importance such as the recurrent empirical finding of correlations between conceptually orthogonal personality dimensions and the possibility that gender differences in these dimensions are partly spurious. In Study 1 (N = 227), we demonstrate that the existing short form of the EPP (EPP–SF; H. J. Eysenck, Wilson, & Jackson, 1996) provides a poor fit to the data and we develop a revised well-fitting version. In Study 2, we retest this version on an independent new sample (N = 3,374) where it is again found to fit the data well. We show that most of the structural and measurement parameters of the revised EPP–SF are invariant across genders. Structured means analysis indicated a significant gender difference in Psychoticism, with men scoring higher than women, but no differences in Extraversion or Neuroticism. Our discussion focuses on issues concerning personality measurement and structure, including an examination of the role of confirmatory factor analysis in personality research.
EPP Francis, L. J., Jones, S. H., Robbins, M., Jackson, C. J. 2003 The personality profile of female Anglican clergy in Britain and Ireland: a study employing the Eysenck Personality Profiler. Archiv fur Religionpsychologie, 25, 222-231. A sample of 523 newly ordained female Anglican clergy in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales completed the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP). The data demonstrated that the female clergy tended to be less extravert than women in general, less neurotic than women in general, and less toughminded than women in general. These findings help to clarify the way in which women clergy tend to project a characteristically masculine personality profile in respect of one major dimension of personality (neuroticism), but a characteristically feminine personality pro file in respect of the other two major dimensions of personality (psychoticism and extraversion).
EPP Francis, L. J., & Jackson, C. J. 2003 Eysenck’s dimensional model of personality and religion: are religious people more neurotic? Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 6, 87 – 100. The Eysenck Personality Profiler was completed by 400 undergraduate students together with the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The data confirm the main conclusion of several previous studies by demonstrating that there is no significant relationship between the personality dimension of neuroticism and religiosity. The analyses go beyond previous studies by examining the relationships between religiosity and the seven component parts of neuroticism separately. These analyses demonstrate a significant positive correlation between religiosity and guilt, a significant negative correlation between religiosity and unhappiness, and no significant correlation between religiosity and low-self esteem, anxiety, dependency, hypochondriasis, or obsessiveness.
  Jackson, C., Levine, S. & Furnham, A. 2003 Aggregate factor analysis: support for Gray's model or ecological fallacy. European Journal of Personality, 17, 1-15. Previous research shows that correlations tend to increase in magnitude when individuals are aggregated across groups. This suggests that uncorrelated constellations of personality variables (such as the primary scales of Extraversion and Neuroticism) may display much higher correlations in aggregate factor analysis. We hypothesize and report that individual level factor analysis can be explained in terms of Giant Three (or Big Five) descriptions of personality, whereas aggregate level factor analysis can be explained in terms of Gray’s physiological based model. Although alternative interpretations exist, aggregate level factor analysis may correctly identify the basis of an individual’s personality as a result of better reliability of measures due to aggregation. We discuss the implications of this form of analysis in terms of construct validity, personality theory, and its applicability in general. Copyright # 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
rRST Jackson, C. J. 2003 Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory: A psychometric critique. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 533-544. This study identifies valid orthogonal scales of Gray’s animal learning paradigms, upon which his Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) is based, by determining a revised structure to the Gray–Wilson Personality Questionnaire (GWPQ) (Wilson, Gray, & Barrett, 1990). It is also determined how well Gray’s RST scales predict the surface scales of personality, which were measured in terms of Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP) scales, the EPQ-R and the learning styles questionnaire (LSQ) scales. First, results suggest that independent pathways of RST scales may exist in humans. Second, Fight seems related to Anxiety and not the Fight/Flight system as proposed by RST. Third, a remarkably consistent story emerges in that Extraversion scales are predicted by Fight, Psychoticism scales are predicted by Activeavoidance, Fight and/or Flight, and Neuroticism scales tend not to be predicted at all (except for Anxiety). Fourth, Gray’s revised scales are unrelated to gender and age effects and show a predictable overlap with the LSQ and original GWPQ scales. It is concluded that Gray’s model of personality might provide a stable biological basis of many surface scales of personality, but that there must also be other influences on personality. These results question the finer structure of Gray’s RST whilst also showing that RST has greater range of applicability than a strict interpretation of theory implies. # 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
EPP Furnham, A., Petrides, K. V., Jackson, C. J., Cotter, T. 2002 Do Personality Factors Predict Job Satisfaction? Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 1325-1342. Two studies investigated the relationships between personality traits and aspects of job satisfaction. In Study 1, job applicants (n=250) completed the EysenckPersonality Profiler and the WorkValues Questionnaire (WVQ), which requires respondents to rate various work-related facets according to the extent to which they contribute to their job satisfaction. These facets were combined into two composites (hygiene and motivator) based on previous research. The three personality superfactors accounted for a small percentage of the variance in importance ratings (about 5%). In Study 2, employees (n=82) completed a measure of the ‘Big Five’ personality traits and the Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (JSQ), which assesses both what respondents consider as important in their workenvironment as well as their satisfaction with their current job. Importance ratings were again combined into two composites while job satisfaction ratings were factor analyzed and three factors, differentiated along hygiene versus motivator lines, emerged. Personality traits again accounted for a small percentage of the total variance both in importance ratings and in levels of job satisfaction. It is concluded that personality does not have a strong or consistent influence either on what individuals perceive as important in their workenvironment or on their levels of job satisfaction. # 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
EPP Francis, L. J., Jones, S. H.,  Jackson, C. J.  & Robbins, M. 2002 The feminine personality profile of male anglican clergy in Britain and Ireland: a study employing the Eysenck Personality profiler. Review of Religious Research, 43, 14-23. A sample of 1,148 newly ordained male Anglican clergy in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales completed the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP). The data demonstrated that the male clergy recorded a characteristically feminine profile in terms of 16 of the 21 personality traits proposed by this questionnaire.
  Levine, S., & Jackson, C. 2002 Aggregated personality, climate and demographic factors as antecedents of departmental stock loss. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17, 287 – 293. The present study investigated how demographic, personality, and climate variables act to predict departmental theft. Participants in the current field survey were 153 employees from 17 departments across two stores. The results of confirmatory factor analyses supported the construct validity of the Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) and the Occupational Climate Questionnaire (Furnham & Gunter, 1997) in UK work settings. The results of regression analysis indicate that the variability in departmental theft is accountable in terms of a linear combination of demographic, personality, and climate factors. We concluded that an expanded theoretical perspective (utilizing demographic, personality, and climate variables) explained more variance than might otherwise be expected from any single perspective. Indeed, climate, personality, and demographic variables operated legitimately at the departmental level. Finally, we explained aggregated personality as a form of social interaction which is the by-product of individual differences.
  Jackson, C. J., & Corr, P. 2002 Global job satisfaction and facet description: The moderating role of facet importance. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 18, 1 - 8. Recent research supports Locke’s (1976) model of facet satisfaction in which the “range of affect” of objectively defined facet descriptions is moderated by subjective evaluations of facet importance (McFarlin & Rice, 1992). This study examined the utility of Locke’s moderated model of facet satisfaction for the prediction of organizationally important global measures of job satisfaction. A large dataset of two groups of workers allowed testing over different time periods and across a broad range of satisfaction measures. The hypothesis derived from Locke’s model, that global satisfaction would represent a linear function of facet satisfactions (i. e., facet description × facet importance), was not supported. Instead, a simple (have-want) discrepancy model (operationalized as facet description) provided the most consistent set of predictors. The results suggest that workers, when providing global measures of job satisfaction, may use cognitive heuristics to reduce the complexity of facet description × importance calculations. The implications of these data for Locke’s model and directions for future research are outlined.
  Jackson, C. J. & Levine, S., Furnham, A. & Burr, N. 2002 Predictors of cheating behavior at University: A lesson from the psychology of work. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32,  1-18. The present study investigated students' behavior across academic departments to establish how personality, demographic, educational, attitudinal, and climate (both psychological and departmental) predicted self-reported cheating behavior at a university. Participants were 107 students from a variety of academic disciplines. The results explain 50.5% of the variability in sclf-reported cheating behavior in terms of demographic (male, school education qualifications), departmental climate, and individual differences (Lie and Neuroticism scales). We concluded that an expanded theoretical perspective (utilizing a wide range of person and situation variables) explained more variability than would otherwise be explained from any single perspective, and that findings from the literature of integrity at work generalize to educational settings. Finally, we discuss the limitations and implications of this research.
  Jackson, C. J. & Laborero, H. 2002 The importance of team learning. Selection and Development Review, 17, 9 – 11.
  Jackson, C. J. 2002 Predicting team performance from Belbin’s team role model and team process model.   Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17, 6 - 13. This paper determines the effectiveness of a learning process model in the prediction of team performance. The team performance of 19 teams was objectively measured by using a “first past the post” criterion after completion of a demanding exercise. Performance scores were predicted by means of Honey and Mumford’s learning styles questionnaire. Results indicated that a model based on team learning is predictive of team success and that team members’ scores should be averaged to best predict performance. In comparison, Belbin’s team role questionnaire was not predictive of team performance.
EPP Jackson, C. J. 2002 Mapping Gray’s model of personality onto the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP). Personality and Individual Differences , 32, 495-507. The aim of this study was to determine how well Gray’s model of personality [Gray, J.A. (1982). The neuropsychology of anxiety: an enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Gray, J.A. (1987). The psychology of fear and stress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press], as measured by the Gray–Wilson Personality Questionnaire (GWPQ), can provide a full description of personality as measured by the primary scales of the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP) and the type scales of the short version of the EPQ-R. Factor analysis of the GWPQ, the Anxiety and Impulsivity scales of the EPP and the Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ) showed that the GWPQ seemed to measure general activation and inhibition factors, but not the finer features of Gray’s theory. When the GWPQ scales were regressed against each scale of the EPP, it was found that they generally provide only a reasonable explanation of the EPP primary scales. It is concluded that the GWPQ measures general properties of Gray’s model, that the Impulsivity and Anxiety scales of the EPP also seem related to the GWPQ scales, and that Gray’s model of personality provides only a partial explanation of personality in general. # 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
EAR Jackson, C., Furnham, A. & Miller, T.  2002 Moderating effect of ear dominance on personality in the prediction of sales performance. Laterality,  6, 133-140. This study examined the relationship between ear preference, personality, and performance ratings on 203 telesales staff. Social desirability scores were a significant predictor of two relatively independent sets of supervisor ratings (actual performance and developmental potential) in interaction with ear preference. It was found that the social desirability scale was a significant positive predictor for staff preferring a right ear headset, but a negative predictor for staff preferring a left ear headset. These results were interpreted in terms of different strategies used to achieve successful sales.
  Jackson, C. J. & Furnham, A.  2001  Appraisal ratings, halo and selection: A study using sales staff European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 17, 17-24. Supervisor ratings are useful criteria for the validation of selection instruments but may be limited because of the presence of rating errors, such as halo. This study set out to show that supervisor ratings which are high in halo remain successful criteria in selection. Following a thorough job analysis, a customer service questionnaire was designed to assess the potential of retail sales staff on three “orthogonal” subscales labelled Dealing with people, Emotions and energy, and Solitary style. These subscales were uncorrelated with supervisor ratings made about 8 weeks later. However, the supervisor ratings were correlated with an overall scale derived from the three scales of the customer service questionnaire. These results support the view that supervisor ratings generally consist of global impressions and suggest that these global impressions are useful measures of overall performance. This field study confirms laboratory results that halo does not necessarily reduce rating accuracy
EPP Jackson, C. J. 2001 Comparison between Eysenck & Gray’s models of personality in the prediction of motivational work criteria.   Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 129-144. Impulsivity based on Gray's physiological model of personality was hypothesised to be more predictive of goal oriented criteria within the workplace than scales derived from Eysenck's. Results confirmed the hypothesis and also showed that Gray's scale of Impulsivity was generally a better predictor than attributional style and interest in money. Results were interpreted as providing support for Gray's Behavioural Activation System which moderates response to reward.
EPP Furnham, A., Jackson, C., Forde, L & Cotter, T. 2001 Correlates  of the Eysenck Personality Profiler.   Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 587-594 In this two part study, 811 participants completed the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP) and the Honey and Mumford Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ) and 263 adults completed the EPP and the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator< (MBTI). As predicted there were many significant correlations which add to the concurrent validity of the EPP. When the overlap of the EPP with the MBTI and LSQ is compared with the overlap of the NEO-PI with the MBTI and LSQ (derived from Furnham, 1996a and Furnham, 1996b) it appears that the EPP has greater similarity with the LSQ, but the NEO-PI has greater similarity with the MBTI.
  Corr, P. J. & Jackson, C. J. 2001 Dimensions of perceived sexual harassment: effects of gender, and status/liking of protagonist.   Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 525-538. We explored individual differences in males’ and females’perceptions of potentially sexually harassing male behaviours in two studies, using a questionnaire design. In the first study, based on perceptions of an undergraduate population, principal components analysis supported the hypothesis of two independent dimensions: unwanted sexual attention (e.g. touching and kissing) and gender harassment (e.g. crude and sexist remarks). Results for the liked/disliked boss factor, indicated that male and female respondents rated both forms of sexual harassment as more serious by a disliked boss than by a liked boss; but males rated gender harassment as less serious than females. In the second study, based on employees working in a university setting, males once again took a more charitable view of gender harassment, but not unwanted sexual attention; and, compared with females, males believed sexual harassment to be less common in the workplace. Male/female respondents also rated seriousness in relation to three levels of status (boss, colleague, subordinate): across both dimensions, the order of rated seriousness for status of protagonist (colleague<subordinate<boss) suggested that the appropriateness of the behaviour in terms of the situation was important. Results from both studies indicate that subjective factors play an influential role in the designation of male behaviour as ‘sexually harassing’. Findings are discussed in terms of proximal-level attribution theory and ultimate-level evolutionary theory. Implications of these data and theories for workplace interventions are outlined.
EPP Aziz, S. & Jackson, C. J. 2001 A comparison between three and five factor models of Pakistani Personality data. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 1311-1319. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R), the Eysenck Personality Profiler Short Version (EPP-S), and the Big Five Inventory (BFI-V4a) were administered to 135 postgraduate students of business in Pakistan. Whilst Extraversion and Neuroticism scales from the three questionnaires were highly correlated, it was found that Agreeableness was most highly correlated with Psychoticism in the EPQ-R and Conscientiousness was most highly correlated with Psychoticism in the EPP-S. Principal component analyses with varimax rotation were carried out. The analyses generally suggested that the five factor model rather than the three-factor model was more robust and better for interpretation of all the higher order scales of the EPQ-R, EPP-S, and BFI-V4a in the Pakistani data. Results show that the superiority of the five factor solution results from the inclusion of a broader variety of personality scales in the input data, whereas Eysenck's three factor solution seems to be best when a less complete but possibly more important set of variables are input.
EPP Francis, L. J., Robbins, M. Jackson, C. J., & Jones, S. H. 2000 Personality theory and male anglican clergy: the EPP. Contact: An international study of pastural studies, 133, 27-36.
EPP Jackson, C. J., Furnham, A, Forde, L & Cotter, T. 2000 The dimensional structure of the Eysenck Personality profiler. British Journal of Psychology, 91, 223-240. The dominant issue in personality research over the last decade has been concerned with the fundamental structure of personality and the best measures of that structure. Exploratory factor analysis was used to investigate possible three- and five-factor solutions to the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP; Eysenck, Barrett, Wilson, & Jackson, 1992) which consists of 21 primary scales categorized under three super-factors. Little evidence was found to support Costa and McCrae's (1995) unequivocal comment that a five-factor solution fitted the data well. Confirmatory factor analysis was also used, by means of structural equation modelling, to estimate the goodness of fit of three- and five-factor models and little evidence was found to favour one solution over the other. A shorter version of the EPP, which consists of just nine scales, seemed to favour a three-factor solution. Various criticisms of the EPP are also made: some scales have relatively low alpha, there seem to be too many neuroticism scales and the three category response scales seem less than ideal.
  Jackson, C. J, Furnham, A.  & Willen, K. 2000 Employer willingness to comply with the Disability Discrimination Act regarding staff selection in the United Kingdom. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 73, 119-129. This study investigated personnel directors and managers’ willingness to revise their current selection procedures as a result of both their attitude towards disabled persons and their knowledge of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (DDA). The DDA states that ‘reasonable adjustments’ must be made to the selection process for persons with a disability to enable them to compete on an equal level with non-disabled candidates. Results showed that employer willing- ness to comply with the Act is predicted by attitude towards disabled people and knowledge of the legislation. The results are discussed in terms of the likely impact that the DDA will have on the employment situation for persons with a disability and the factors which might aVect its success.
EPP Jackson, C. J., Furnham, A. & Lawty-Jones, M. 1999 Relationship between indecisiveness and neuroticism: the moderating effect of a tough-minded culture. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 789-800. This paper investigated the relationship between the total number of Cant Decide (CD) scores on an extensive (440 item), computer administered personality test (Eysenck Personality Profiler; EPP) and the personality trait scores from that test. Across a diverse range of occupational groups, the CD score was moderately, positively correlated with Neuroticism< (r = 0.24, P < 0.001) but the size of the correlation varied substantially according to the occupational group of the test-takers. Moderated regression analysis indicated that the average psychoticism score of the group interacted with CDs to predict an individuals neuroticism. This relationship shows how the tough-mindedness of the occupational culture, as defined by the scores of peers, moderates neuroticism of the participants. The results underpin the importance of looking at test-taking styles and how they interact with the environment. This quasi-experimental study represents a new approach to investigating neuroticism, whilst avoiding the ethical issues of conducting actual experimental studies.
  Jackson, C. J. 1999 Beliefs about money in interaction with personality and attributional style as predictors of sales success. Selection and Development Review, October, 9-13.
  Jackson, C. J. & Francis, L. J. 1999 Interpreting the correlation between neuroticism and lie scale scores. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 59-63. Three samples of 50 undergraduates each completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R), one sample under normal test conditions and two samples under different instructions to fake good. The data confirm the view that the correlation between neuroticism and lie scale scores provides an index of the motivation to fake good within different samples.
  Furnham, A., Jackson, C., & Miller, T. 1999 Personality, learning style and work performance.   Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 1113-1122 Just over two hundred telephone sales staff completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and Honey and Mumford's Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ). Extraversion was highly correlated both positively and negatively with three of the four LSQ measures. The lie scale from the EPI was also systematically correlated with the Activist and Reflector scales of the LSQ. Both the EPI and LSQ traits were modestly correlated with two criteria: ratings of Actual Performance and Development Potential. Regressions were used to determine the best predictors of the two ratings measures. Personality variables (extraversion, neuroticism and certain learning styles (reflector, pragmatist) were statistically significant predictors of rated performance, though they accounted for less than 10% of the explained variance. The results concur with recent meta-analytical studies that show personality variables account for a small but important amount of variance in measures of work performance.
  Francis, L. J. & Jackson, C. J. 1998  The social desirability of tough-mindedness: a study among undergraduates. Irish Journal of Psychology, 19, 400-403. Two samples of 50 undergraduates each completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R); one under normal test conditions and one under instructions to portray a socially desirable image. Consistent with earlier studies social desirability was associated with lower neuroticism scores. Contrary to earlier studies social desirability was associated with elevated psychoticism scores.
  Jackson, C. J.  & Corr, P. 1998 Personality-performance correlations at work: individual and aggregate levels of analysis.   Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 815-820. In the occupational community, there is a widespread faith in the utility of personality assessment for selection, development, etc. This faith has been immune to arguments, supported by empirical evidence, regarding the poor correlation between personality and performance in the workplace (these correlations rarely exceed the 0.2–0.3 level). The difference between perception of utility and the actual empirical reality is large. We investigated one possible source of this perceived-actual discrepancy. In two separate samples, we compared the magnitude of validity coefficients from individual and aggregate (i.e. organizational) levels. Our results indicated that strong actual personality-performance correlations exist at the aggregate level of analysis, but not at the individual level of analysis. We suggest that this aggregate-individual correlation discrepancy may, in part at least, account for the perceived-actual discrepancy noted above. We conclude that the continued faith in personality testing in the workplace may be a consequence of test users' sensitivity to actual aggregate level personality-performance correlations. However, we warn of the danger of drawing inferences from aggregate level correlations when making decisions about individuals, and point out the statistical artefacts that may account for some of the magnitude increase in aggregate level correlations. Several foci for further research are indicated.
  Jackson, C. J., Potter, A., & Dale, S. 1998 Utility of a facet description model of job satisfaction.   European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 14, 134-140. In this study, the immediate utility of facet descriptions was assessed over several global criteria directly and indirectly related to global job satisfaction. Nearly 20 000 subjects from a large military, organization were used. Meaningful and significant correlations of between 0.20 to 0.43 were obtained. Convergent and divergent validity was found since facet descriptions were more predictive of global criteria directly related to global job satisfaction (Enjoyment of the job and Organizational enjoyment) than indirect measures of job satisfaction (Enjoyment of off-duty life, Likelihood of leaving the service early and Likelihood of further service). Correlations were also generally consistent over time, and the factor structure was interpretable in a straightforward manner. It was concluded that facet descriptions seem to be simple and adequate measures of overall job satisfaction.
  Jackson, C. J., & Lawty-Jones, M. 1996 Overlap between personality and learning style. Personality and Individual Differences, 20, 293-300. Each scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ) was factor analysed. Extraversion (E) and Psychoticism (P) were related to many components of the four learning styles. Neuroticism (N) was not related to components of learning styles. All elements of learning style were related to at least one of the elements of the personality traits. Furnham (Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 429–438, 1992) was therefore correct to suggest that learning style is a sub-set of personality and need not be measured independently, unless it is learning style that is of interest in its own right. Those components of personality that were unrelated to learning style appear to have been already identified as having a biological basis.
  Elliot, S., Lawty-Jones, M., & Jackson, C. J. 1996 Effect of dissimulation on self-report and objective measures of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 335-343. The effect of subject dissimulation on self-report personality inventories (EPQ-RS and IVE Questionnaires) and two objective tests (time taken to complete the questionnaires and time taken to trace a circle) was investigated. A total of 150 subjects were placed in one of three conditions : (1) faking towards the personality of a successful stockbroker; (2) faking towards the personality of a successful librarian; or (3) control. When motivated to fake, it was hypothesized that objective tests would be more resistant to faking and thus more accurate than self-report personality questionnaires. Results supported this hypothesis and also demonstrated the validity of both objective measures.
  Jackson, C. J. 1996 An individual differences approach to the halo-accuracy paradox. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 947-957. performance appraisal, the halo-accuracy paradox describes the surprising result that rater accuracy can be positively correlated with the halo rating error. Fisicaro (1988) provided an explanation for this unlikely relationship by proposing an inverse V function as the relationship between accuracy and invalid halo in which maximum accuracy is located at zero invalid halo. This paper develops the model by proposing that maximum accuracy does not have to be at zero invalid (Hypothesis I). As the cognitive difficulty of a rating task increases, a negative monotonic relationship between maximum achievable accuracy and associated value of absolute invalid halo is specified (Hypothesis 2). The hypotheses were tested in two different experimental situations. Results from both studies supported Hypothesis I but, whilst a distinct pattern between accuracy and absolute invalid halo was noted, only a weak version of Hypothesis 2 could be supported. The evidence from this paper demonstrates that the halo-accuracy paradox is not an artefact as some recent reviewers have proposed (Balzer & Sulsky, 1992; Murphy & Balzer, 1989; Murphy & Cleveland, 199 I ). Copyright 0 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.
  Jackson, C. J. 1995 Assessing important and observable personal qualities in the general selection interview. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 11, 75-80. Typical job analysis methods derive personal qualities (PQs) such as traits, constructs, skills and attributes that are important to the job. Such methods are unsuitable to derive measurement criteria for use in general selection interviews because important PQs are not necessarily easy for the interviewer to observe and thus to assess. In this study, a job analysis method was used to derive important and observable PQs which were used to assess candidates within a structured, life-history, general selection interview. After correcting for range restriction and adjusting for number of variates, the multiple correlation of the PQs against success at the next stage of training was: 0.41 for non-graduates; 0.28 for staff; and 0.18 for graduates. Two possible explanations, both to do with observability of PQs, are proposed to explain these differences in predictive validity. It is argued that the proposed method can have similar validity to the situational interview for some groups of candidates without the problems and limitations of the situational interview.
  Jackson, C. J., & Wilson, D. G. 1994 Group obsessiveness as a moderator of dissimulation on Neuroticism scales. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 10, 224-228. Demonstrates another moderator of the relationship between Neuroticism (N) and Lie (L); the extent to which an obsessional ethos prevails in 12 occupational groups. A high L scorer on personality questionnaires will often also have a low N score, presumably because neuroticism is generally regarded as socially undesirable. This idea is supported by the finding that the negative correlation between N and L is increased by conditions of high motivation in testing or selection compared with low motivation or research. Occupational groups with a high average level of obsessionality on the Eysenck Personality Profiler showed a high (negative) relationship between N and L while those with low average scores on obsessionality showed no consistent tendency for N scores to be attenuated by high L scores. Findings confirm that the N/L correlation is not just dependent on motivation to do well, but also on certain characteristics of the group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
  Wilson, D. G., & Jackson, C. J. 1994 The personality of physicists. Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 187-189. The Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP) was given to 109 male and 133 female physicists and comparisons made with male and female population norms. Results confirm previous research with male scientists, showing them to be introverted and cautious (particularly careful, controlled, inhibited and unsociable). They were not, however, especially stable relative to same-sex controls. The personality profile of the female physicists showed a similar pattern to that of males (as regards comparisons with gender norms). Although significantly more tough-minded than women at large, female physicists could not be described as generally masculine.
  Jackson, C. J., & Wilson G. 1993 Mad, sad or bad? The personality of motorcyclists. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 241-242. Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP) scores of 29 motorcycle enthusiasts were compared with population norms separately by sex. Male bikers (n = 22) appeared as tough, aggressive, dogmatic, sensation-seeking, impulsive, risk-taking, irresponsible and lacking in self-esteem and ambitiousness. They were also significantly anxious and depressed compared with male norms. The female sample (n = 7) was too small for many significant differences to appear, although, even then, the lack of ambitiousness among bikers was replicated (P < 0.01). These results are generally in accord with the public image of bikers as adventure-seeking drop-outs and support the construct validity of the EPP as providing an accurate, detailed picture of personality.
EPP Eysenck, H. J., Barrett, P., Wilson, G., & Jackson, C. J. 1992 Primary trait measurement of the 21 components of the P-E-N system. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 8, 109-117.